Õnnela Paas, Karin Reinhold, Jelena Hartsenko, Piia Tint



The safety management system in 16 Estonian manufacturing companies (eight certified and eight non-certified in OHSAS (occupational health and safety management systems standard) 18001; four of the last corporated to the foreign firms) were investigated using the MISHA method. The results showed that if the advanced safety methods (like proposed by OHSAS 18001) are implemented by the initiative of the employers of the locally-owned Estonian SMEs, the level in safety performance, comparable with OHSAS certified companies could be achieved. The regression analysis showed strong correlation between the personnel management, safety activities in practice, communication, physical work environment, psychological working conditions, hazards analysis procedures and the  safety level, R2= 0.7312-0.9596; medium correlation between the participation, personnel safety training, occupational accidents and illnesses, social work environment and the safety level (R2=0.3133- 0.6044). Low correlation (R2= 0.2139) was recorded between the safety policy and the safety level and there was no correlation between the work ability of the employees and the safety level.The methods toimprove the locally-owned enterprises’ safety level up to the corporated and OHSAS 18001 certified level are proposed. The cost of suitable safety measures is calculated.  The MISHA method improvement possibilities for the use in the SMEs (small and medium size companies) are presented.


Full text: PDF


Safety management, Safety measures, Risk assessment, Safety training, SMEs (small and medium size companies)

JEL Codes



Abrahamsen, E.B., Aven, T. and Roed, W., 2009. Communication of cost-effectiveness of safety measures by use of a new visualizing tool. Reliability & Risk Analysis: Theory & Applications, 2, December, pp.38-46.

ABSConsulting, 2005. Root Cause Analysis Handbook: A Guide to Effective Incident Investigation. Brookfield, CT: Rothstein Associates.

Angew, J.L. and Snyder, G., 2002. Removing obstacles to safety. In G.A. Tucker (Ed.). Performance Management Publications, DOI: 10.1901/jaba.2008,41-365.

Ballou, R.H., 1992, Business Logistics Management. 3rd Edition. Eaglewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall International Editions.

Bell, J.L. and Grushecky, S.T., 2006. Evaluating the effectiveness of a larger safety training program, Journal of Safety Research, 37(1), pp.53-61.

Breslin, F.C. and Smith, P. 2005. Age-related differences in work injuries: a multivariate, population-based study. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 48(1), pp.50-56. DOI: 10.1002/ajiim.20185.009449.

Cooper, M.D., 2000. Towards a model of safety culture. Safety Science, 36, pp.111-136. DOI: 10.1016/S0925-7535(00)00035-7.

Cooper, M.D. and Phillips, R.A., 2004. Exploratory analysis of the safety climate and safety behavior relationship. Journal of Safety Research, 34, pp.497-513. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsr.2004.08.004.

Cohen, A. and Colligan, M.J., 1998. Assessing occupational safety and health training: A literature review. DHHS (NIOSH). Publication NO. 98-145.

Daniels, A.C. and Daniels, J.E., 2006. Performance Management: Changing behaviour that drives organizational effectiveness (4th ed.). Atlanta, GA: Performance Management Publications.

Dermol, V., 2013. Relationship between learning, knowledge creation and organizational performance. Versita, Scientific Annals of “Alexandra Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi Economic Sciences, 60(1), pp.67-82. DOI: 10.2478/v10316-012-0034-5.

Estonian Act for Occupational Health and Safety. 1999. RT I 1999, 60, 616, Available at:

Estonian Association for Quality. 2014. Database of Certificates. Available at: (in Estonian).

Eurostat, 2015. Available at:

Fernandez-Muniz, B., Motnes-Peon, J.M. and Vazquez-Ordas, C.J., 2007. Safety culture: Analysis of the causal relationships between its key dimensions. Journal of Safety Research, 38, pp.627-641.

Flin, R., Mearns, K., O’Connor, P. and Bryden, R., 2000. Measuring safety climate: Identifying the common features. Safety Science, 34, pp.177-192.

Geller, S.E. 2005. Behavior-based safety and occupational risk management. Behavior Modification, 29(3), 539-561. DOI: 10.1177/0145445504273287.

Heinrich, H.W., 1941. Industrial accident prevention. McGraw-Hill, 448 pp., DOI: 10.1016/j.ress.2013.01.006i.

HSE, 2001. Health and safety climate survey tool/Information pack. Health and safety laboratory. Available online at

Jonston, J.J., Cattledge, G.T. and Collins, J.W., 1994. The efficacy of training for occupational injury control. Occupational Medicine, 9(2), pp.147-158.

Kuusisto, A., 2000. Safety management systems. Audit tools and reliability of auditing. VTT Publications, No 428, Espoo, 174 pp. + appendixes.

Laberge, M. and Ledoux, E. 2011. Occupational health and safety issues affecting young workers: a literature review. Work, 39(3), 215-232, DOI: 10.3233/WOR-2011-1170.

Laberge, M., MacEachen, E. and Calvet, B., 2014. Why are occupational health and safety training approaches not effective? Understanding young worker learning processes using an ergonomic lens. Safety Science, 68, pp.250-257. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssci.2014.04.012.

Leiter, M.P., Zanaletti, W. and Argentero, P. 2009. Occupational risk perception, safety training, and injury prevention. Testing a model in the Italian painting industry. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14(1), 1-10, DOI:10.1037/1076-8998.14.1.1.

Luria, G. and Rafaeli, A., 2008. Testing safety commitment in organizations through interpretations of safety artefacts. Journal of Safety Research, 39, pp.519-528.

National Labour Inspectorate of Estonia. 2015. Statistics. Available at:

Paas, Õ., Reinhold, K. and Tint, P. 2015a. Estimation of safety performance by MISHA method and the benefits of OHSAS 18001 implementation in Estonian manu-facturing industry. Agronomy Research, 13(3), 792-809.

Paas, Õ., Reinhold, K., Tint, P. and Siirak, V. 2015b. Safety auditing role in the improvement of safety performance at enterprises. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 16 pp., (in press).

Peterson, D., 2000. Safety management 2000: Our strengths and weaknesses. Professional Safety, 45(1), pp.16-18.

Reinhold, K., Järvis, M. and Tint, P. 2009. Risk observatory- a tool for improvement safety and health at workplace. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE), 15(1), 101-112.

Reinhold, K., Tint, P. and Kiivet, G. 2006. Risk assessment in textile and wood processing industry. International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering, 13, pp.115-125.

Resolution of the Ministry of Social Affairs of Estonia, 2003. No.74 of 24 April 2003. The procedure for health examinations of workers. State Gazette of Estonia, RTL 2003, 56, 816.

Resolution of the Ministry of Social Affairs of Estonia, 2001. No.26 of 27 February 2001. Occupational health and safety requirements for manual lifting of loads. State Gazette of Estonia, RTL 2001, 35, 468.

Resolution of the Ministry of Social Affairs of Estonia, 2000a. No.80 of 14 December 2000. Procedure for training and advanced training regarding occupational health and safety. State Gazette of Estonia, RTL 2001, 35, 469.

Resolution of the Estonian Government, 2000b. No.362 of 15 November 2000. The demands for working with the monitors. State Gazette of Estonia, RTI 2000, 86, 556.

Sinclair, R.C., Smith, R., Colligan, M., Prince, M., Nguyen, T. and Stayner, L., 2003. Evaluation of a safety training program in three food service companies. Journal of Safety Research, 34, pp.547-558.

Sorock, G.S., Lombardi, D.A., Gabel, C.L, Smith, C.L. and Mittleman, M.A. 2001. Case-crossover studies of occupational trauma: methodological caveats. Injury Prevention, 7(suppl1), 38-42, DOI:10.1080/10408398.2010.526838.

Stanca, L.M. and Lacurezeanu, R., 2012. Continuous training possibilities in a company through blended learning, Versita, Scientific Annals of “Alexandra Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi Economic Sciences, 59(2), 2012, pp.173-181.

Tint, P., Järvis, M., Reinhold, K. and Paas, Õ. 2009. Risk assessment and measurement of hazards in Estonian enterprises. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 8(5), pp.1165-1170.

Tint, P., Paas, Õ. and Reinhold, K. 2010. Cost-effectiveness of safety measures in enterprises. Inzinerine Ekonomika- Engineering Economics, 21(5), pp.485-492.

Tomlinson, C.M., Craig, B.N. and Meehan, M.J., 2011. Enhancing safety performance with a leading indicators program. Human Factor in Ship Design and Operation, 16-17 November 2011, London, UK. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects, 9 pp.

Traumann, A., Reinhold, K. and Tint, P. 2013. The model for assessment of health risks of dust connected with wood manufacturing in Estonia. Agronomy Research, 11, pp. 471– 478.

Wahlström, B. and Rollenhagen, C., 2014. Safety management- A multi-level control problem. Safety Science, 69, pp.3-17, DOI:10.1016/j.ssci.2013.06.002.

Wallen, E.S. and Mulloy, K.B., 2006. Computer-based training for safety: Comparing methods with older and younger workers. Journal of Safety Research, 37, pp.461-467.

Wirth, O. and Sigurdsson, S.O., 2008. When workplace safety depends on behaviour change: topics for behavioural safety research. Journal of Safety Research, 39, pp.589-598, DOI: 10.1016/j.jsr.2008.10.005.

Wu, T-C., Lin, C-H. and Shiau, S-Y., 2010. Predicting safety culture: The roles of employer, operations manager and safety professional. Journal of Safety Research, 41, pp.423-431, DOI: 10.1016/j.jsr.2010.06.006.

Zohar, D. and Luria, G., 2005. A multilevel model of safety climate: Cross-level relationships between organizations and group-level climates. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(4), pp.616-628, DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.90.4.616.