Adriana Zait


In exploratory researches we are looking for clues, trying to get a better picture of the research variables and relationships. Besides variables already studied, identified in the literature review, we might deal with specific variables – for the investigated subject and socio-cultural region – the ones that might lead us to new explanations and theories. These new variables can be depicted from in-depth interviews and informal discussions with intervening actors, through a process of identification, conceptualization (obtaining theoretical definitions), and operationalisation (suggesting ways for the measurement of the identified variables). The present paper offers an example of such a process for a particular subject – identifying potential specific influences on the business negotiation behaviour. The focus is on the methodological aspects of such a research endeavour. 

Full text: PDF


variable conceptualization, operationalisation, exploratory research, research methodology, business negotiation, cultural factors

JEL Codes

L22, L25, M10, M14, M16


Adair, W.L., & Brett, J.M. (2005). The negotiation dance: time, culture, and behavioural sequences in negotiation. Organization Science, Vol.16 (1), pp. 33-51.

Bendersky, C., & Curhan, J.R. (2009). Cognitive dissonance in negotiation: free choice or justification? Social Cognition Vol.27 (3), pp.455-474.

Brunk, K. (2012). Un/ethical Company and Brand Perceptions: Conceptualising and Operationalising Consumer Meanings. Journal of Business Ethics Vol. 111, pp.551-565.

Caputo, A. (2013). A literature review of cognitive biases in negotiation processes. International Journal of Conflict Management Vol. 24 (4), pp.374-398.

Dahling, J.J., Whitaker, B.G., & Levy, P.E. (2009). The Development and Validation of a New Machiavellianism Scale, Journal of Management, Vol. 35 (2), pp. 219-257.

Drollinger, T., Comer, L., &Warrington, P. (2006). Development and validation of the Active Empathetic Listening scale. Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 23(2), pp. 161–180.

Durvasula S., & Lysonski, S. (2008). A double-edged sword: understanding vanity across cultures. Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 25 (4), pp. 230–244.

Durvasula, S, Lysonski, S., & Watson, J. (2001). Does vanity describe other cultures? A cross-cultural examination of the vanity scale. The Journal of Consumer Affairs, Vol. 35 (1), pp. 180-199.

Ger, G., & Belk, R.W. (1996). Cross-cultural differences in materialism. Journal of Economic Psychology, Vol. 17 (1), pp. 55-77.

Gheorghiu, M.A, Vignoles, V. L., & Smith, P. B. (2009). Beyond the United States and Japan: Testing Yamagishi's Emancipation Theory of Trust across 31 Nations. Social Psychology Quarterly,Vol. 72 (4), pp.. 365-383.

Hall, E.H., & Lee, J. (2012). Conceptual operationalisation issues within the context of an international study: Japanese and American firms. Asian Academy of Management Journal Vol.17 (2), pp.97-120.

Kapoutsis, I., Volkema, R.J., & Nikolopoulos, A.G. (2013). Initiating Negotiations: The Role of Machiavellianism, Risk Propensity, and Bargaining Power. Group Decis Negot, Vol. 22, pp. 1081–1101.

Krekels, G., Pandelaere, M. (2015). Dispositional greed. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol.74, pp. 225-230.

Lin, X., & Miller, S. (2003). Negotiation approaches: direct and indirect effect of national culture. International Marketing Review, Vol.20 (3), pp.286-303.

Luomala, H.T., Kumar, R., Singh, J.D., & Jaakkola, M. (2015). When an Intercultural Business Negotiation Fails: Comparing the Emotions and Behavioural Tendencies of Individualistic and Collectivistic Negotiators, Group Decis Negot Vol. 24, pp. 537–561.

Mollering, G.,Bachmann, R., & Lee, S. H. (2004). Introduction: Understanding organizational trust – foundations, constellations, and issues of operationalisation. Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol.19 (6), pp. 556-570.

Moyano,M., Tabernero, C., Melero, R. & Trujillo, H.M. (2015). Spanish version of the Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS) / Versión española de la Escala de Inteligencia Cultural (EIC), Revista de Psicología Social: International Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 30 (1), pp.182-216.

Perng, S.J., & Watson, R. (2012). Construct validation of the nurse cultural competence scale: a hierarchy of abilities. Journal of Clinical Nursing Vol.21, pp.1678-1684.

Rapp, J.K., Bernardi, R., & Bosco, S. (2011). Examining the use of Hofstede’s uncertainty avoidance construct in international research: a 25 year review. International Business Research, Vol.4 (1), pp.1-15.

Reynolds, N., Simintiras, A., & Vlachou, E. (2003). International business negotiations: Present knowledge and direction for future research. International Marketing Review Vol.20 (3), pp. 236-261.

Rohrmann, B. (2005). Risk attitudes scales: concepts, questionnaires, utilization.

Sarkar, A.N. (2010). Emerging strategic issues in global business negotiation: sharing global vision. Drishtikon: A Management Journal, Online access, accessed July 15, 2015.

Scherbaum, C.A., & Meade, A.W. (2013). New Directions for Measurement in Management Research. International Journal of Management Reviews, Vol. 15, pp. 132–148.

Shi, X. (2001).Antecedent factors of international business negotiations in China context. Management International Review, Vol.41 (2), pp.163-187.S

Simintiras, A.C., & Thomas, A.H. (1998). Cross-Cultural Sales Negotiations: A Literature Review and Research Propositions. International Marketing Review, 15(1): 10-28.

Song, Y.J., Hale,C., & Rao, N. (2004). Success and failure of business negotiations for South Koreans. Journal of International and Area Studies, Vol.11 (2), pp. 45-65.

Stoshikj, M. (2014). Integrative and distributive negotiations and negotiation behavior. Journal of Service Science Research, Vol.6, pp.29-69.

Teo, P.C, Mohamad, O., & Ramayah, T. (2011). Testing the dimensionality of Consumer Ethnocentrism Scale (CETSCALE) among a young Malaysian consumer market segment. African Journal of Business Management Vol.5 (7), pp. 2805-2816.

Tu, Yu-Te, Chih, Heng-Chi (2011). An Analysis on Negotiation Styles by Religious Beliefs. International Business Research, Vol.4 (3), pp.243-253.

Warter, I., & Warter, L. (2015). Intercultural negotiation in mergers and acquisitions. The integration of the cultural dimension into the negotiation domain. Buletinul Institutului Politehnic din Iaşi, Vol. LX1 (LX5), pp.73-86.

Zait,D., Spalanzani, A., & Zait, A. (2015). Construcţia strategică a cercetării. Opţiuni metodologice – între logic şi euristic, Editura Sedcom Libris Iaşi.

Zait, D., Warter, L., and Warter, I. (2014). Cross-cultural incentives for the FDI. Crosscultural Management Journal, Vol.5, pp. 209-221.

Zait, D., & Zait, A. (2009). Research anticipation: the methodological choice. Review of International Comparative Management Vol. 10 (5), pp. 902-909.

Zhu, X., & Gao, D. (2013). Nothing Succeeds Like Success, International Studies of Management & Organization, Vol.43 (4), pp.26-38.